鄂尔多斯| 东兴| 武威| 罗平| 长宁| 农安| 东丽| 汨罗| 青龙| 咸宁| 枞阳| 喜德| 资源| 理塘| 金华| 龙里| 南澳| 灵武| 行唐| 友谊| 顺平| 梅里斯| 三穗| 康定| 武强| 岚县| 营山| 克东| 永靖| 淮阳| 信宜| 黑水| 临城| 太仓| 宜州| 阿鲁科尔沁旗| 清远| 沁源| 天安门| 长顺| 兴山| 南岳| 华坪| 沾化| 宁海| 靖远| 东西湖| 子洲| 昌吉| 庆云| 弓长岭| 阜宁| 塘沽| 志丹| 灌阳| 栾川| 万载| 博鳌| 慈溪| 康乐| 屏南| 荣成| 兖州| 桐柏| 舞钢| 内丘| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 永胜| 泰州| 利川| 长安| 双牌| 高邮| 乌兰察布| 松桃| 花莲| 桐梓| 昭平| 巩义| 礼县| 石狮| 淅川| 竹溪| 奉节| 鄂托克旗| 临沧| 高青| 德钦| 永安| 张掖| 乌拉特前旗| 鹤峰| 带岭| 乌什| 麦积| 鄂托克旗| 达孜| 台东| 罗甸| 保德| 柳城| 武当山| 化州| 南海镇| 宾阳| 和静| 隆昌| 望奎| 武昌| 神池| 汝阳| 宁晋| 句容| 湖口| 曾母暗沙| 奉化| 东乌珠穆沁旗| 黎川| 定安| 郾城| 临沂| 博爱| 庆元| 榆树| 柯坪| 铁力| 汾阳| 柳城| 南昌市| 兴宁| 宣化区| 歙县| 托克逊| 甘肃| 贡嘎| 甘肃| 大姚| 宝清| 萧县| 平顶山| 红原| 夏津| 陆良| 大悟| 顺德| 辉县| 延寿| 九台| 安宁| 广西| 离石| 屏南| 永修| 肥乡| 哈尔滨| 澄城| 阿坝| 漳浦| 扬州| 沙县| 全州| 马鞍山| 南安| 二连浩特| 华容| 中阳| 湄潭| 河南| 永寿| 南山| 宣化区| 罗甸| 土默特右旗| 梁山| 托里| 茶陵| 麟游| 青白江| 赞皇| 西宁| 安福| 珠穆朗玛峰| 皮山| 墨竹工卡| 松桃| 龙里| 荆州| 稻城| 台中县| 曲水| 嘉善| 永胜| 九龙| 洋县| 丹棱| 山西| 东山| 衢江| 阳西| 富县| 泸西| 吴江| 荥经| 五原| 绥滨| 永济| 青县| 托里| 普宁| 梨树| 崇仁| 安福| 宿豫| 莱芜| 紫云| 扶风| 淇县| 府谷| 肃宁| 东宁| 耒阳| 徐州| 邯郸| 铜仁| 城固| 彭山| 五莲| 香格里拉| 定兴| 东丰| 博山| 安顺| 元坝| 通山| 祁连| 康定| 察隅| 武夷山| 泗县| 重庆| 泰和| 大邑| 头屯河| 东乡| 眉县| 宜都| 佛冈| 宁波| 芮城| 陈巴尔虎旗| 汤旺河| 新县| 沂水| 惠东| 呼和浩特| 奇台| 陆河| 青河| 郁南| 八一镇| 定南| 乌拉特中旗| 临川|

医生受贿546万:我不收钱就便宜了药贩子药贩子医生受贿

2019-07-16 06:55 来源:消费日报网

  医生受贿546万:我不收钱就便宜了药贩子药贩子医生受贿

  WhenNortheastChinasuffersaslowdown,itspeoplealsofaceanimagecrisis○Nationwidediscriminationagainstdongbeiren(peopleofNortheastChina)hasintensified○Thebadbehaviorofsomeofdongbeirenisattributedtotheregionseconomicdownturn○ExpertsaysthatastructuralreformofNortheastChinawillrevivethoseprovincesAnemployee:VCGTheEmbassyofSwedeninBeijingmighthavebeenbewilderedbygrowingdemandsfromChineseonlineusersrecentlythattheyshoulddiscipline"Swedishpeople",ssocialmediaplatforms,"Swedishpeople"hasbecomeahumorousbutslightlyderogatorytermreferringtopeoplefromthethreeprovincesofNortheastChina(alsoknownasDongbei),namelyJilin,iren(peoplefromNortheastChina)stealingfruitsandvegetablesgrownbylocal,onlineusersstartedtocreatejokesabouttheNortheasternersandthebanterspreadtotheSwedishEmbassy,aboutChinasrustbeltthathasbe,:ICFlowingoutNortheastChina,oncethecountrysprosperousindustrialbase,hasbeenexperiencingamassiveexodusofresidentsduetoitsshrinkingeconomy,fter1949whenpeoplefromotherregionsfloodedtoDongbeitomakealiving."tgetusedtothemarket-orientedeconomyveryquickly,"LiangQidong,thevicepresidentofLiaoningAcademyofSocialSciencesandaneconomist,sopening-upinthe1990s,,,ChenQiufa,governorofLiaoningProvince,openlyadmittedthattheprovincehadinflateditsGDPfiguresfrom2011to2014."LiaoningsproblemreflectsthethreerecessionsofDongbei:resourcedecline,structuralrecessionandsystematicrecession,",,thenumberofState-,manypeoplechosetoaban,,,themigrantpopulationfromHeilongjiangProvincereaches300,000inHainansSanya,whilethepermanentresidentpopulationamongthemisonlyabout130,,thenetoutflowpopulationofthethreenortheastprovinceswasashighas2million,"Thereasonforthedebateaboutdongbeirenisduetotheregionseconomicdownturninrecentyears,aswellassystematic,culturalandpeople-to-peopleissues,"smostgloriouserawasbetweenthe1950sandthe1970s,boastingthehighesturbanizationlevelacrossChina,Liangsaid."Inthe1950sand1960s,andhonoredtoworkupinDongbei."FuYoli,anativeHainanese,said"MostpeopleinHainanhavenotformedastereotypedimagetowarddongbeiren,butweoftenkeepadistancewithunfamiliardongbeirenincasethereistrouble."ZhaoYa"Somedongbeirenindeedstealthingsfromsupermarkets,tmeanallpeoplefromDongbeiarelikethat;somearegood,somearebad."Graphics:GTAbackwardtagThereisapopularsaying-"investmentdoesnotgobeyondShanhaiPass",ChinaInstituteforEmploymentResearchindexes,anindextomonitoremploymentclimate,wereallunderoneinthisyearsfirstquarter,whichisevenlowerthanlastyear,the,andgovernmentjobsaretheonly"real",accordingtoJinXianghua,whocomesfromTonghua,JilinProvince,"Itisalsocommonforpeopletouseguanxi,orconnectionstosolvetheirproblems,socompetitionisnotfairandequalhere,"seducationallevel,,aformervicepresidentattheWordBankandawell-knowneconomist,lastyearproposedastrategyforDongbeitodevelopnewsectorstopromotelocaladvantagescomparedtootherpartsofthecountry,forexample,,Jilinlau,Jinandherclassmatesarenolongerinterestedinherhometownsattemptforarevival."InourWeChatgroup,-tiercitywiththatprogram;Ithinkthereisnohopeformetoeverreturn,"beiren,LiangsaidtheeconomicsituationofDongbeiisnotgood,"Sopleasedon"Headdedthatafteritsstructuralreform,Dongbeiwillbebetter.",",,theregionledthecountryineducation,,dnewjobs,,arecentlyreleasedmovieinBelgium,depictshowamassivenumberof,Dongbeipeoplehavebecomeknownfortheiroutlandishtattoos,shardtolandastablejobinDongbei,man,,"dongbeirenstealthings"and"dongbeirenstealgreenbeans"wentviral,andeven"dongbeirenstealSanya"an,deanofTheSchoolofCommunicationandDesignatSunYat-SenUniversity,toldtheGlobalTimesthatmockingofdongbeirenmayresultinnegativeeffects."Itmayfurtherwidenthediscrepancyandgapbetweennorthernandsouthernregions,oryoucouldsaydevelopedandunderdevelopedareas,":DongbeidiscriminationManufacturingprowessstillincreasingInthepasttwoyears,IvetraveledtoDongguaninSouthChina,IwasassignedtocoveradifferenttopicrangingfromthereplacementofworkerswithrobotstotheslowdowninlocalGDPduetocrackdownsinvariousareassuchasthewayinwhichoriginalequipmentmanufacturers(OEMs),italwaysseemedthatthismanufacturinghubhasbeengrowingfromaworldfactoryintoasmartfactorythaotsandhowmanyforeign-fundedfactoriesinDongguanhavebeenshutdownbecauseo,fo,whichconsideredthemselvescontributorstoChinaseconomicgrowth,,thousandsoffactoriesweresetupinthePearlRiverDeltaregion,,,whomIinterviewedduringmydaysinDongguan,sharedthestdaybyday,theyaccumulatedexperienceindo,,butcanbeusedinmanyeverydayareasincluheirforeignrivals-rushedintotheglobalsupplychain,foreialenvironmentinChinahasbecomemoredifficult,withtightenedr,astheirChinesecounterpartsarebeliev,

”在2005年、2015年中国人民抗日战争胜利60、70周年纪念大会上,胡锦涛同志、习近平同志都沿用了“十四年抗战”的说法。警方公布的消息显示,截至21日,警方在依法维持秩序过程中共有61人受伤。

  (B&R)initiativehasnowconnectedmorethan100countriesandinternationalorganizations,,Chinahasbeenengaginginfurtheropening-up,,the10thLujiazuiForum2018willbeheldinShanghaionJune14and15withthethemeof“Shanghaisdevelopmenttowardaninternationalfinancialcenterinthenewera.”GlobalTimesLondonCorrespondentSunWei(GT)interviewedCatherineMcGuinness(McGuinness),chairmanofthePolicyandResourcesCommitteeundertheCityofLondonCorporation,sopening-upandtheCityofLondonsroleintheB&:GlobalTimes|2018/5/2921:13:40Reformandopeninguphaschangedtheglobaleconomiclandscapeandvaluechain,andthismaybejust"thebeginningofanunfoldinghistorictrajectory"asChinavowstofurtheropenupitseconomy,,combiningcorrectpoliciesandrelentlesshardwork,LimYokeLoon,GreaterChinapresidentoftheUSchemicalgiant,,whichLimsaidhasunleashedincrediblemarketpotentialinChina,andenableditstransformationintoacriticalChina,thecompanyhasenjoyedtremendousgrowthopportunitiesinthemarket,,000loca,DowopenedtheShanghaiDowCenterin2009,itslargestintegratedresearchanddevelopmentcenteroutsidetheUnitedStates,whichnowprov,andfocusesonindustrialupgradingandenvironmentalprotection,itwillprovidemoreopportunitiesforDowandotherinternationalenterprises,sdevelopmentinChina,Limsaidthecompanywillmaintainastrategicfocusongrowthindustriesandmarkets,geographicexpansion,andcustomervaluecreationthroughinnovation.

  Chinasfirstdomesticallybuiltaircraftcarrierlefttheportyandcarrier-basedaircraftswillparticipateincombattrialsafterthecarrierisformallydeliveredtoChina:30amonSundaymorning,theaircraftcarrierembarkedfromportinDalian,acoastalcityinNortheastChinasLiaoningProvince,withtheassistanceoffivetugboatsasfirecrackersandthevessel:14am,thecarrierturnedaroundsuccessfullyandheadedtosea,disappearinginthefogat7:on,theproducerofChina,manylocalsandtouristscametotheportoutsi,soitwillmainlyfocusonthetestingofitsbasicsystems,includingpower,communication,firesafety,andelectro-mechanical,SongZhongping,amilitaryexpertandTVcommentator,toldtheGlobalTimesonSunday."Weaponsystemsandcarrier-basedaircraftsareunlikelytoparticipateinthefirstseatrial,andcombatcapabilitytestswillbecarriedoutbythePeoplesLiberationArmy(PLA),itsproducermayneedaboutsixmonthstofinishtests,whichmeansthenavywillreceivetheshipbytheendofthisyear,"Songsaid.AviewofMcDonaldsfirstrestaurantintheChinesemainlandlocatedinLuohudistrict,Shenzhen,onOctober8,1990,thefirstdayitstartedbusinessPhoto:CourtesyofMcDonaldsChinaAviewofthesamerestaurantonFebruary6Photo:ChenQingqing/GTMcDonalds,thewell-knownWesternfast-foodbrandbornintheUSstateofIllinoisin1955,enteredtheChinesemainlandin1990,whenpeopleconsideredsuchfoodanexoticexperienceprovidedbyChina,thepolicystestground,,deanoftheHamburgerUniversityofMcDonaldsChina,wasoneofthe10managementtraineesemployedbythefirstoutletofMcDonaldsinthemainland,hai,whereMcDonaldsChinahasitsheadquarters,tocultivateChinesemanagersandsupportthegrowthofMcDonaldscorporatebusinessschoolintheworld,itcultivatesChinesemanagersandsupportsthegrowthoftherestaurantchainintheChinesemarket."Atthattime,sHongKong,DanielNg,decidedtotakeachanceonChinasopening-uptotheworldandselectedShenzhenastheplacetoenterthemarketduetoitsproximitytoHongKong,whichcouldguaranteeefficientstaffandmaterialsupportfromamoredevelopedmarket,"LiangtoldtheGlobalTimes."Besides,peopleinShenzhen,inthespecialeconomiczonewherepolicieswererelativelyflexible,weremoreacceptingofforeigngoodsandculturethankstotheirfrequentexchangeswithHongKong,",thefirstMcDonaldsoutletinChinaisstillservingcustomerswholineuptobuyitshamburgers,,e."ItwaspopulartouseHongKongdollarsatthattimeandmanypeoplepaidfortheirorderswithcurrencynotesofHK$500orHK$1,000,"sfirstSundayinoperation,saleshitaworldrecordforMcDonaldsof460,000yuan(about$73,000today).Butmostofthecustomers,mainlyShenzhenslocalpeople,didnotknowhowtoeatWesternfastfoodatthattime."Theirhugecuriosityjustpushedthemtoqueueforit,"shesaid."Forexample,manyhadtroubleusingforksandknivestoeatpancakes,atraditionalMcDonaldsbreakfastproductthatisnolongeronthemenuinChina,andtheydidnotknowhowtocoverthemuffinwithdifferentsauces,"sHubeiProvincetoldtheGlobalTimesonSundaythatshehadbeentothefirstMcDonaldsstorein1998withhermother."WeorderedaBigMac[thehitproductofMcDonalds]…ThenInoticedpeoplearoundmewereholdingtheburgertogetherfirmlyandbitingintoit,soIfollowedsuit,"Chennoted."LookingbackoverthedecadessinceMcDonaldsenteredtheChinesemarket,peoplehavecometoacceptWesternfastfoodasanormalpartoftheirdailylives,"sChinahadmorethan2,600restaurantsinthemainlandbytheendof2017,,500outletsby2022,d,the"foreigninvestmentenvironmentisgettingbetterandbetterandthelocalgovernmentisofferingstrongersupportinChina,"Liangsaid.

  与以往拍摄的同类题材纪录片不同,《筑梦路上》从策划与创作一开始,联合摄制的各方就达成共识:应该让这部纪录片用“讲故事”的方式,努力将中国共产党95年的风雨历程更加精彩地呈现出来。

  Functions:elopment,annualplans,mediumandlong-termdevelopmentplans;tocoordinateeconomicandsocialdevelopment;tocarryoutresearchandanalysisondomesticandinternationaleconomicsituation;toputforwardtargetsandpoliciesconcerningthedevelopmentofthenationaleconomy,theregulationoftheoverallpricelevelandtheoptimizationofmajoreconomicstructures,andtomakerecommendationsontheemploymentofvariouseconomicinstrumentsandpolicies;tosubmittheplanfornationaleconomicandsocialdevelopmenttotheNationalPeoplest,warningandinformationguidance;tostudyimportantissuesconcerningmacroeconomicperformance,aggregatebalance,nationaleconomicsecurityandoverallindustrialsecurityandputforwardpolicyrecommendationsonmacroeconomicmanagement;tocoordinateandaddressmajorissuesineconomicoperationandadjusteconomicperformance;totakechargeinorganizingtheemergent,participateintheformulationoffiscal,monetaryandlandpolicies,andformulateandimplementpricepolicies;toanalyzetheeffectsofimplementingfiscal,financialandlandpoliciesandsuperviseandinspecttheimplementationofpricepolicies;tosetandadjustthepricesofimportantcommoditiesthatareregulatedbytheStateandimportanttariffsandchargesandaccordingtorelevantlegislationsinvestigateanddealwithpricemonopolyandactivitiesthatbreachthepriceregulations;tocontrolandmonitorthetotalsizeofChinasforeigndebts,optimizeitsmix,,promoteandcoordinatetherestructuringofeconomicsystems;tostudymajorissuesconcerningtherestructuringofeconomicsystemsandopeninguptotheoutsideworld;toformulateplansforthecomprehensiverestructuringofeconomicsystems,coordinateplansfordedicatedeconomicrestructuringandcoordinatejointlywithotheragenciesimportantdedicatedeconomicrestructuringplans;toguidepilotprojectso;toformulateregulatorytargets,policiesandmeasuresconcerningthetotalsizeandstructureoffixedassetinvestmentinthewholesociety;toarrangeandcoordinatededicatedplansthatinvolvecentralgovernmentinvestmentandkeyconstructionprojectsinaccordancewithbalancedneeds;toarrangefiscalexpenditureforeconomicconstruction;toapprove,authorize,andreviewkeyconstructionprojects,foreign-fundedkeyprojects,keyinvestmentprojectsforoverseasresourcesdevelopment,andinvestmentprojectsutilizinglargeamountofforeignexchangeasmandatedbytheStateCouncil;toguideandsupervisetheutilizationofforeignloansinconstructionprojects;toguideprivateinvestment;tostudyandputforwardstrategiesandplansforforeigncapitalutilizationandoverseasinvestment,aswellastargetsandpoliciesconcerningaggregatebalanceandstructuraloptimization;toorganizeinspectionforkeyconstructionprojects;;toorganizetheformulationofcomprehensiveindustrialpolicies,coordinatekeyissuesinthedevelopmentofprimary,secondaryandtertiaryindustriesaswellasbalanceandcoordinateindustrialdevelopmentwithrelevantplans,majorpoliciesandplansforthenationaleconomicandsocialdevelopment;tocoordinatemajorissuesinagriculturalandruraleconomicandsocialdevelopment;toformulatestrategiesandmajorpoliciesfordevelopmentofserviceindustrytogetherwithotherministries;toformulatestrategiesandplansformodernlogisticsdevelopment;toformulatestrategies,plansandmajorpoliciesforthedevelopmentofhigh-techindustriesandadvanceofindustrialtechnologies;tocoordinateandaddressmajoriss,coordinatetheimplementationoftheseplansandcarryoutmonitoringandassessment;toformulatestrategies,plansandmajorpoliciesforpromotingthecoordinateddevelopmentofregionaleconomy,developmentofwesternregion,revitalizationofnortheasternregionandotheroldindustrialbases,andriseofcentralregionofChina;tostudyandputforwarddevelopmentstrategiesandmajorpoliciesconcerningurbanization;ities;toformulateplansfortheoverallvolumeofimportandexportofimportantagriculturalproducts,industrialproductsandrawmaterials,supervisetheimplementationoftheseplansandadjusttheminaccordancewiththeperformanceofthenationaleconomy;toformulateplansforthestatereserveofstrategicmaterialsandcarryoutcollection,utilization,rotationandmanagementofthesematerials;tomanagethestatereserveofgrain,cottonandsugar,pmentpolicies;toorganizetheformulationofstrategies,overallplansandannualplansofsocialdevelopment;toparticipateintheformulationofdevelopmentpolicieswithregardtopopulationandfamilyplanning,scienceandtechnology,education,culture,healthandciviladministrationandpromotesocialundertakingconstruction;tostudyandputforwardpoliciesandsuggestionsofincreasingemployment,adjustingincomedistributionandimprovingthecoordinateddevelopmentofsocialsecurityandeconomicdevelopment;tocoordinatethesolutionofmajo;toundertakecomprehensivecoordinationofenergysavingandemissionreduction;toorganizetheformulationandcoordinatetheimplementationofplansandpolicymeasuresforrecyclingeconomy,nationalenergyandresourceconservationandcomprehensiveutilization;toparticipateintheformulationofplansforecologicalimprovementandenvironmentalprotection;tocoordinatethesolutionofmajorissuesconcerningecologicalbuilding,energyandresourceconservationandcomprehensiveutilization;tocoordinaterelevantworkconc,plansandpoliciesinaddressingclimatechange;totaketheleadwithrelatedministriesinattendinginternationalnegotiationsofclimatechange;toundertakerelevantworkinregardtothefulfillmentofthocialdevelopment,economicsystemrestructuringandopeninguptotheoutsideworldandformulateregulations;,studytherelationsofnationaleconomicmobilizationwithnationaleconomyandwithnationaldefense,coordinaterelatedmajorissues,organsion,theLeadingGroupOfficeforWesternRegionDevelopmentoftheStateCouncil,theLeadingGroupOfficeforRevitalizingNortheastChinaandOtherOldIndustrialBasesoftheStateCouncilandtheNationalLeadingGroupOfficeforClimateChange,,theNDRCisalsoresponsiblefortheadministrationoftheStateGrainAdministrationandtheNationalEnergyAdministration.

  曾经担任过周恩来和邓颖超秘书、全国政协原副秘书长赵炜在一次接受记者采访时说:“我跟邓颖超这么多年,就没看见她有日记。  费希尔说:中国的网站自2012年以来一直有关于研发神雕无人机的传言,之前也有其他中国消息人士暗示过。

  “四伯在黄陂前川中学读书时,开始接触马列主义思想,从此走上革命道路。

  制定游艇旅游发展指导意见,有规划地逐步开放岸线和水域。ThecoremoduleofChinasspacestationanditsyoungdevelopmentteamareinthelimelight,promptingspeculationsthatChinasTianjinMunicipality,ChinaCentralTelevision(CCTV)reportonSaturday,,alargecylinderandasmallcylinder,thecoremodulewillworktocontroltheflight,powersystemandlifesupportsystemofthewholestation,aswellastoprovidespaceforastronautstoworkin,conductexperimentsandrest,ZhangHao,adesignerofthespacestationsystem,ntmodules,eachweighingover20tons,andcanbejoinedwithtwomannedspacecraftandonecargospacecraft,dismantlingequipmentwithinthestationwhenitfloatsinspace,JiaoWeixin,aspacescienceprofessoratPekingUniversity,toldtheGlobalTimesonSunday."IftheShenzhouspacecraftisacar,,onelivingroomandastoreroom,"saidZhuGuangchen,,whenChinawasleftoutoftheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)sspacestationprojectisaround35,Zhusaid."Thankstotherejectionin1995,sspacestationwillbetheonlyworkingstationafter2024whentheISSisexpectedtoretireandChinawilltakeadominantpositioninconductingspaceexperiments,"ttrainingoftasksthatwillbedoneonthecountrysspacestationhavestarted,whichincludeunderwaterexercisesandsurvivaltraininginthedesert,theChinaNewsServicereported.

  这段话传递着极为丰富的信息量,对引领我们学习十九大精神,坚定中国自信,有着重要意义。

  是否购买商品房,每一个消费者应该根据自己的经济状况作衡量,是否申请房贷也需要消费者对自己未来收入有一个准确的预估。

  “比如抗战时期,我们没有再去正面表现人们所熟知的平型关大捷及百团大战,而是讲了八路军开辟的19块敌后抗日根据地,通过平山团和英雄母亲戎冠秀送子参军的事迹,说明民众支持是我们党取得胜利的重要保证。当然,要实现这个梦想,还需要有巨大的理论勇气、博大的胸怀以及睿智的战略决断。

  

  医生受贿546万:我不收钱就便宜了药贩子药贩子医生受贿

 
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首页工艺技术》正文
南京爱德老师傅的精装书壳制作经验
2019-07-16 11:03:23  来源: 科印网

精装书加工一直是业界人士关注的一项装订技术,而精装书壳则是重中之重。南京爱德印刷有限公司以生产豪华精装书著称。下面就请在精装书制作方面颇有经验的南京爱德印刷有限公司的刘军民老师,带您走进精装书壳的加工世界。

工艺样书制作的重要性

完美之作,设计为先。一本装帧精美的书籍,其书芯与书壳的准确匹配是必须的。书芯制作在书壳制作之前,书芯尺寸制作得越规范,所得到的书壳尺寸也将越准确。通常还必须将顾客的要求作为工艺设计的前提,如欧洲订单与国内订单,对精装书所要求的圆势及飘口大小有较大差异。

我们要强调工艺样书制作的必要性和重要性,因为一方面它是工艺设计与结果的真实体现,使顾客能在最快的时间里见到其作品,另一方面又可以让一些问题尽可能早地暴露在批量生产之前,使问题得以提早解决。

书壳材料的选择

根据书壳上所包面料的方式可分为整面书壳(包面为一整张料)和接面书壳(包面为两种以上的材料);以包面的材料不同可分为皮面书壳、塑面书壳、布面书壳、PVC涂布面书壳、纸面书壳和贴膜面书壳等;以内衬材料的不同又可分为:硬封、半硬封和软封,还有豪华真皮拉链封等;从包角方式的不同还可分为圆角和方角。

对以上各种不同款式和不同材质书壳的加工,其生产要求和加工手段也有所不同。

如皮面书壳在加工中由于其价格的昂贵和原材料形状的不规则,应尽可能利用模具来模切开料,这样既经济也不会使相对柔软的皮面出现压痕。由于皮面书壳的强度大、弹性好,生产时所用的胶料最好为冷胶,这样有助于保持皮面的柔软,不变硬,使其具有较好的手感。真皮书壳在包边、包角之前必须进行削薄处理,以避免叠合隆起。人造革面书壳的制作相比之下要容易得多,但最好也用冷胶。

布面、PVC涂布面及纸面书壳生产时尽可能使包面纤维顺丝平行于书背,这样既有利于制壳时包面的上胶,又有利于三粘压槽时的压槽成型,且可使封面在压槽时不易因受力而破损。

接面书壳的制作

接面书壳的制作通常采用人、机合作来完成。首先糊壳机糊制好书壳的中径部分,再根据封面的接面位置,在接面的重叠处用设定好的模具压出一条3~5mm宽的凹线,最后通过手工将前后的封面糊制在线条处,这样既可保证封面接面位置准确而不歪斜,也可避免接面处两层包面材料重叠隆起。

在糊制印刷过的封面书壳时,值得推荐的是:在制封面印版时,可在封面天头或地脚包边的边缘处,加上一个宽为1~2mm、高为3~4mm的色块,以此来判断在裁切和制壳上封时,封面位置是否准确。

软封的制作

软封主要是指用PVC膜印刷或非印刷直接制成的书封面。PVC膜从制造厂生产加工后一般是以卷筒的方式发往印刷厂的,由于PVC膜自身的特性决定了其伸缩变量很大,特别是沿着卷筒的方向。另外不同的温差也会直接影响它的伸缩量,所以对它的裁切、摆放、释放变量、加工成型等应有一套有效的方法。

首先,根据封面顺丝的原则裁切成平张大料,摆放在多层式网状晾架上(每层50张为宜),然后放入40~50℃的烘房内烘烤12小时左右,再在常温下存放24小时进行变量释放,再进行小料裁切,最后进入下道工序。通过这样处理过的封皮最终将不会有尺寸上的伸缩变化,使得后工序的加工质量得到保证。

书壳的码放要正确

码放的方式由封面材料的性质来决定。不易损坏的书封面材料可以重叠码放,但较好的方法是将书壳垂直站立码放或正反码放,这样可避免书壳包边、包角处因重叠码放而留下压痕和胶脏,同时立式码放也可使转序快的书壳早点干燥。

半硬封书壳最好选用正反叠码,以免书壳变形。有条件的单位应在硬封书壳上三粘套合前进行一次整形处理,这样可使书壳更平整服贴,提高套合精度。

无论硬封还是半硬封书壳在施胶时都应尽可能的稀而薄,这样可保证书壳表面平整而不会因施胶过厚产生凹凸不平,同时也不会因沟槽处有过厚的胶料造成压槽不挺或封面脆裂。

书壳糊制生产中的注意事项

1.生产前

①根据样壳检查书壳部件尺寸。

②内部尺寸:(中缝条宽+2×中沟宽)。其中,圆背书壳的中沟宽=6mm+1张纸板厚,平背书壳的中沟宽=6mm+1张纸板厚;圆背书壳的中缝条宽=(书芯厚+2张纸板厚)×1.12,平背书壳的中缝条宽=书芯厚+2张纸板厚。

③外部尺寸:2×纸板宽+2×中沟宽+中缝条宽。

④封面尺度:2×包边宽+外部尺寸。

⑤封面宽度:纸板高度+2×包边宽。

⑥检查接料书壳的书腰料及前后材料的尺寸大小。

⑦对各种材料的纤维方向进行再次检测。

⑧检查中缝条是否选择正确(圆或平)。

⑨检查数量制定是否正确。

2.生产中

①检查封面上胶是否正确(冷胶或热胶),包边是否对称。

②检查封面上胶是否均匀。印刷封面设计是否符合制壳要求及标准。

③检查封面是否有擦伤。

④检查中缝条是否有长短,是否居中。

⑤检查完成的书壳是否有胶脏或包边有溢胶。

⑥检查包边是否有虚边,封面上胶是否有缺失。

⑦检查书角是否整齐包好,四角是否垂直。

⑧要不断进行抽样检查。

南京爱德老师傅详细介绍了精装书壳的制作事项,让人受益匪浅。其实,一本完美的精装书壳除了与操作人员的技术水平息息相关外,更离不开先进的精装书壳制作设备,不仅要求设备拥有超高的性能,也要求设备供应商能提供优质的服务。

浩友夫作为世界闻名的装订和包装机械制造企业,既可提供糊壳机、文件夹生产线、纸杯机、包装容器制造设备等,又能为客户做好售后保障。其拥有多款糊壳机,其中经典型BDM 20高速全自动糊壳机自1986年首次推出以来,在全世界范围内已经销售了近千台。

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